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Te Puni Kōkiri
Notes - specific topics

Household income

Derived from the Census question:

'From all sources of income identified, what will the total income be that you got yourself, before tax or anything was taken out of it, in the 12 months that will end on 31 March 2013?'

Household income comprises the total of incomes of all persons in the household who stated an income and were at home on Census night.

Households where one or more personal incomes were not stated or a resident over 15 was away on Census night are included in 'Not Stated'. In these cases, the aggregate of all stated individual incomes would be less than the true household income so these households are excluded from the classification.

Household income quartiles

Derived from the Census question:

'From all sources of income identified, what will the total income be that you got yourself, before tax or anything was taken out of it, in the 12 months that will end on 31 March 2013?'

Household income groups are not comparable over time because of the influences of economic change such as wage level fluctuations and inflation. The income quartile method has been adopted as the most objective method of comparing change in the income profile of a Iwi or Iwi rohe over time.

Household income quartiles look at the distribution of incomes Iwi relative to New Zealand. Quartiles split the total number of households into four equal parts for the benchmark area. The table shows the number and proportion of households , in the Iwi national population profile and in Iwi Rohe falling into each segment for the benchmark area.

Five year age groups

Derived from the Census question:

'When were you born?'

The age structure of the population is derived from the Date of Birth recorded on the Census form. It is consistent from 2006 to 2013.

Languages spoken

Derived from the Census question:

'In which language(s) could you have a conversation about a lot of everyday things?' This is a multi-response question.

Language is a multi-response question which records all languages which a person can speak and understand (including sign language). It does not include reading and writing a particular language.

A total of 194 different languages are recorded in the Census. The data presented in TPK Māori Demographic profile are Maori, Māori and English, English and other languages.

There are no known changes to the language classification between 2006 and 2013. There was a reminder was added to the Census question that respondents should tick "English" if they are able to hold a conversation in English.

As language is a multiple response question, the total number of responses will sum to greater than the total population, and therefore the percentages shown on the table add to more than 100%. The official language and combination language indicators at the bottom of the table are not multi-response and do sum to the population total.

Religion

Derived from the Census question:

'What is your religion?' (This is an optional question). This is a multi-response question.

Religion is coded using the New Zealand standard religious classification.

Please note that religion is an optional question on the Census form and respondents have the right to object to answering.

Religion is a multiple-response question, however, due to the very low rate of multiple responses (3.4% of the population nominated more than one religion), it has been treated as a single response question. The table total represents total responses, and will be slightly higher than the total population. This total has been used for the calculation of percentages. For the subtotals "Christian" and "Non Christian" it is technically possible for a respondent to appear in both these categories. However, it is considered that the multiple-response rate is low enough that the value of having these aggregates in the table outweighs any possible misinterpretations.

The response 'No religion' is exclusive of any other response.

Highest qualification achieved

Derived from three Census questions:

'What is your highest secondary school qualification?','Apart from secondary school qualifications do you have another completed qualification?'

Presents data on the highest educational qualification an individual has achieved. It combines school, non-school and tertiary qualifications into a single classification.

A qualification is defined as 'a formally recognised award for attainment resulting from a full time learning course of at least three months, or from part-time study for an equivalent period of time or from on-the-job training'. A qualification must be awarded by a secondary school or official educational institution (as defined by the Education Act).

Qualifications data are applicable to people over the age of 15 who are New Zealand residents.

'Higher Degree' includes 'Masters Degree', 'Doctorate Degree' and 'Post-Graduate and Honours Degree'.

Fields of qualification

Derived from the Census question:

'Print your highest qualification level and the main subject.'

Presents data on the main broad field of study of the highest educational qualification an individual has received.

Unlike level of qualification information, field of study relates only to post-school (tertiary) qualifications. Those without a tertiary qualification are included as "No Post-School Qualification".

Qualifications data are applicable to people over the age of 15 who are New Zealand residents.

Cigarette smoking

Derived from the Census questions:

'Do you smoke cigarettes regularly (that is, one or more a day)?', and 'Have you ever been a regular smoker of one or more cigarettes a day?'

'Cigarette smoking behaviour' refers to the active smoking of one or more manufactured or hand-rolled tobacco cigarettes, from purchased or home-grown tobacco, per day, by people aged 15 years and over.

Cigarette smoking does not include:

  • The smoking of cigars, pipes and cigarillos;
  • The smoking of any other substances, herbal cigarettes or marijuana for example;
  • The consumption of tobacco products by other means, such as chewing, and;
  • Passive smoking.

Employment status

Derived from the Census questions:

'In the 7 days that ended on Sunday March 3, which of these did you do?

  • worked for pay, profit or income for an hour or more
  • worked in a family business or family farm without pay
  • I work in a job, business or farm, but I was not working last week for some reason
  • None of these - Did you look for paid work in the last 4 weeks?'

Includes persons aged 15 years and over.

'Employed full time' is defined as having worked 35 hours or more in all jobs during the week prior to Census night (the week ended Sunday March 5).

'Employed part time' is defined as having worked less than 35 hours in all jobs during the week prior to Census night.

The 'Labour force' is defined as all persons aged 15 years and over who are looking for work, or are employed, either full time, part time or casually.

'Not in the labour force' includes all people over 15 who are not employed and not looking for work.

Industry sector of employment

Derived from the two Census questions:

'What best describes the business of your employer?' and 'What are the main goods produced or main services provided by your employers business?'

This dataset describes the industries in which employed people work. It applies only to people aged 15 and over who were employed in the week prior to Census.

Data for industry are coded using the Australia and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC). The industry classification is updated periodically to take account of emerging industries and changes in the structure of the economy.

For more information, please refer to the ANZSIC 2013 classification.

Occupation of employment

Derived from the two Census questions:

'In the main job held last week, what was the person's occupation?' and 'What are the main tasks that the person himself/herself usually performs in that occupation?'

This dataset describes the occupations of employed people. It applies only to people aged 15 and over who were employed in the week prior to Census.

The occupation classification is updated periodically to take account of emerging occupation groups and changes to the structure of the labour force.

Method of travel to work

Derived from the Census question:

'On Tuesday March 5, what was the one main way you travelled to work that is, the one you used for the greatest distance?'

This is NOT a multi-response question.

This dataset looks at the method of travel to work of employed people. It applies only to people aged 15 and over who were employed in the week prior to Census.

Method of travel relates specifically to the journey to work on the morning of Census day (in 2013, this was March 7th). This differs to the industry and occupation data which relates to the main job held in the week prior to Census.

The method of travel is a single response variable. If a person travelled using multiple methods, they are instructed to record only that method which they used for the longest distance.

For more information please refer to the information on the Statistics New Zealand website.

Sources of income

Derived from the Census question:

'From all sources of income identified, what will the total income be that you got yourself, before tax or anything was taken out of it, in the 12 months that will end on 31 March 2013?'

Sources of income includes all sources which individuals have identified as having received income from in the 12 months ended March in the Census year.

Sources of income is a multiple response question, and as most households have income from more than one source, the sum of all responses is likely to be significantly in excess of the total population. Percentages are calculated from the total population, so percentages will add to well over 100% in most cases.

'Superannuation, Pensions, Annuities' includes the categories 'NZ Superannuation or Veterans Pension' and 'Other Super., Pensions, Annuities'.

'Government Benefits and Payments' includes 'Sickness Benefit', 'Domestic Purposes Benefit', 'Invalids Benefit' and 'Other Govt Benefits, Payments or Pension'.

Unpaid activities

Derived from the Census questions:

'In the last 4 weeks, which of these activities have you done without pay?

This is a multi-response question.

This is a multiple response question, as respondents are asked to nominate all types of unpaid work they performed in the four weeks prior to Census date. Percentages will add to more than 100%.

Individual income

Derived from the Census question:

'From all sources of income identified, what will the total income be that you got yourself, before tax or anything was taken out of it, in the 12 months that will end on 31 March 2013?'

This dataset includes total gross personal income (from all sources, including pensions and allowances) before tax that a person received in the 12 months ended in March of the relevant Census year.

This question applies only to usual residents of New Zealand aged 15 years and over.

Individual incomes are collected as ranges in the Census. Ranges were identical between 2006 and 2013.

Individual income quartiles

Derived from the Census question:

'From all sources of income identified, what will the total income be that you got yourself, before tax or anything was taken out of it, in the 12 months that will end on 31 March 2013?'

Individual income groups are not comparable over time because of the influences of economic change such as wage level fluctuations and inflation. The income quartile method has been adopted as the most objective method of comparing change in the income profile of a Iwi or Iwi rohe over time.

Individual income quartiles look at the distribution of incomes in Iwi or Iwi Rohe relative to New Zealand. Quartiles split the total population into four equal parts for the benchmark area. The table shows the number and proportion of individuals in a particular Iwi, or Iwi Rohe falling into each segment for the benchmark area.

The table gives a clear picture of where individual incomes in an Iwi or Iwi Rohe sit relative to New Zealand. For New Zealand, 25% of persons fall into each category.

Household type

Derived from the Census question:

'How is each person in the household related to you?'

Defining Māori households or Iwi households is complex. Therefore the data represented in the household tables represents the number of individuals by household characteristics, rather than number of households. Household tables count the number of persons in the Iwi of interest, and if more than one person in the household belongs to that Iwi, the household will be counted multiple times.

Counting persons in a household table can skew the figures, particularly if there are large households in the area. Please treat these data with caution.

Household data describes the type of family and non-family households within a dwelling. More detail on the family households is included in the family type topic.

‘Lone person households’ consist of just one person, though visitors may be present on Census night.

‘Group households’ consist of multiple people who are all unrelated.

The 'Non-classifiable household' category includes all those households where not enough information was provided on the Census form to identify the composition of that household.

'Related individuals, non-family' includes all households of individuals who are related but do not form a couple or parent-child relationship. Eg. brother-sister, uncle-nephew etc. Couple and parent-child relationships are shown in the family type topic.

As the data are counting people in households, only enumerated counts are applicable. Households where all members were absent on Census night are excluded from the count because their dwellings are unoccupied.

Family Type

Derived from the Census question:

'How is each person in the household related to you?'

This dataset describes the type of family households within a dwelling.

Family households include couples, parent-child relationships and other relatives living in a shared household. Information on non-family households, which include lone persons and group households (unrelated individuals)

'Couple with dependent children' and 'One parent family with dependent children' includes all families with children under the age of 18 years who were not employed full time.

'Couple with adult children only' and 'One parent family with adult children only' includes all families with no dependent children, but with children aged over 18 present, or children under 18 and in full time employment.

This dataset includes same sex couple families, though they are not separately identified.

Household size

Derived from the three Census questions:

'Name of each person including visitors who spent the night of Tuesday, March 5 2013 in this dwelling', 'Where does the person usually live?', and 'Are there any persons who usually live in this dwelling who were absent on Census Night (Tuesday, March 5 2013)?'

This dataset counts households by the number of persons usually resident, (including residents who were temporarily absent on Census night).

A household is defined as either one person who usually resides alone or two or more people who usually reside together and share facilities (such as eating facilities, cooking facilities, bathroom and toilet facilities, a living area etc).

This dataset excludes 'Visitor only' households, and visitors to private dwellings who do not normally live there.

Dwelling type

Mark the space that best describes this dwelling:

House or townhouse (NOT joined to any other); House, townhouse, unit or apartment joined to one or more other houses, townhouses, units or apartments; Moveable dwelling, for example, caravan, boat, tent etc; Other'

And 'Is this building as a whole one storey, two or three storeys, four or more storeys, or none of these?'

Dwelling structure looks at the type of dwelling for all occupied private dwellings. The categories are broadly based on the density and height of the housing types.

For the Iwi profile, this topic counts persons of the selected Iwi by the dwelling type of the dwelling in which they were counted. Households with multiple residents of the same Iwi are counted multiple times in the table.

'Separate house' includes all free-standing dwellings not physically joined to any other.

'Medium Density' includes 'Two or More Flats/Units/Townhouses/Apartments/Houses joined together in a one storey, two or three storey building', as well as the same category with no storey information. These categories include all dwellings joined to at least one other.

'High density' includes all dwellings joined together in a four or more storey block.

'Other dwelling' includes caravans, mobile homes, improvised dwellings or shelters and people sleeping rough.

Unoccupied dwellings are shown separately in the table, broken down by the reason for unoccupancy. This was a separate question on the form, answered by the Census collector. Further information on this classification is on the Statistics New Zealand website.

Number of bedrooms per dwelling

Derived from the Census question:

'How many bedrooms are there in this dwelling?'

This dataset counts persons by the number of rooms used as bedrooms in each dwelling. Please note that for the Iwi profile, only people of the selected Iwi are counted in the table.

Bedsits and studios, where the living area is also a bedroom, are counted as having one bedroom.

The number of bedrooms counts caravans adjacent to the dwelling if they are used as bedrooms.

Telecommunications access

Derived from the Census question:

'Mark as many spaces as you need to show which of these are available here in this dwelling; a cellphone/mobile phone (that is here all or most of the time), a telephone, fax access, Internet access, none of these.'

This dataset measures whether a household has access to: a cellphone/mobile phone (that is in the dwelling all or most of the time), a telephone, a fax and/or the Internet, to communicate with people outside the dwelling and to use services provided through these media. This requires the device to be in working order and for there to be a working connection.

All households in occupied private dwellings are included, except for visitor only households. For the Iwi profile, this table counts people of that Iwi, by the telecommunications status of the dwelling in which they were counted.

Access to telecommunications is a multiple-response variable, so the total number of responses is normally considerably in excess of the total population. Percentages are calculated from the total population and will add to greater than 100%.

Car availability

Derived from the Census question:

'How many motor vehicles (not counting motorbikes) do the people who live here have available for their use?'

'Number of motor vehicles' is the number of motor vehicles that are mechanically operational, but not necessarily licensed or having a current warrant of fitness, and are available for private use by the residents of private dwellings.

Motor vehicles include:

  • cars, station wagons, vans, trucks, four-wheel-drive vehicles and other vehicles used on public roads;
  • business vehicles available for private use by people in the dwelling;
  • vehicles hired or leased, and;
  • vehicles temporarily under repair.

They do not include:

  • motorbikes or scooters;
  • vehicles used only for business;
  • farm vehicles not licensed for road use;
  • vehicles that belong to visitors, and;
  • vehicles occasionally borrowed from another household.

Visitor only households are excluded from this topic.

For the Iwi profile, this table counts persons in the household belonging to the Iwi selected, by the number of motor vehicles at that household. Households with multiple persons belonging to the same Iwi will be counted multiple times.

Housing tenure

Derived from Census questions 7-13:

Tenure of household is used to determine if the household owns the dwelling, holds it in a family trust, or does not own the dwelling, and whether payment is made by the household and to whom.

This data presents the tenure type of persons of the specified Iwi living in occupied private dwellings, and for those dwellings being rented, provides a breakdown of the type of landlord the dwelling is being rented from.

The dataset is derived from six Census questions in 2013 and 2006.

'Owned without a mortgage' includes dwellings which are owned by their occupants, who do not make mortgage repayments.

'Owned with a mortgage' includes dwellings which are owned by their occupants, who make mortgage repayments.

'Rented – from a local/central government" refers to households renting from a government housing authority such as the Housing New Zealand Corporation, otherwise known as public housing.

'Rented – from private sector' refers to households renting from private landlords, real estate agents and employers.

'Rented – from unknown sector' refers to rented dwellings where the landlord type was not stated.

'Not elsewhere included' includes "Unidentifiable", "Outside Scope" and "Not Stated".

Housing rental payments

Derived from the Census questions:

'Does this household pay rent to an owner (or to their agent for this dwelling)?' and 'How much rent does this household pay to the owner (or agent) for this dwelling?'

This dataset shows the amount of rent paid by households on a weekly basis for the dwelling in which they were enumerated on Census night.

These data only apply to households renting their dwelling.

Housing rental quartiles

Derived from the Census questions:

'Does this household pay rent to an owner (or to their agent for this dwelling)?' and 'How much rent does this household pay to the owner (or agent) for this dwelling?'

Rental payments are not comparable over time because of the influences of economic change such as inflation. The rental payment quartile method has been adopted as the most objective method of comparing change in the cost of rental housing of a Iwi or Iwi rohe over time.

Rent quartiles look at the distribution of rental payments in Iwi Rohe relative to New Zealand. Quartiles split the total number of households into four equal parts for New Zealand. The table shows the number and proportion of households in a selected Rohe falling into each segment relative to New Zealand.

The table gives a clear picture of the level of rental payments for a particular Rohe relative to New Zealand. For New Zealand, 25% of households fall into each category, so by comparison, the table will show if there are more or less households in a Rohe with high (or low) rent than in the national profile.